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Defining terms

In general, diffusion and innovation is the concept that explained the effects of communication to the society. Diffusion and innovation is one of the situations that show the messages ability and effort to create knowledge as a practice in life or create the new idea in the society. With the ability and effort of the media with the process of persuasion from the opinion leader will consequence society absorb the innovation that was introduced.

Diffusion is the process which innovation is communicated through certain channels all the time among the members of social system. Besides, Innovation is the process of making improvements by introducing something new.



Basically, innovation defined as an idea that assume as a something new by individual or another unit of adoption. Some of the scholar define innovation as the same as the technology. It is used for instrumental action in lessen uncertainty in any relationship to achieve any motive. So, innovation can be seen as an effort to achieve something. Besides, 1960’s is the era that a lot of innovations in contemporary lesson have been adopted. For instance, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physic, open learning, individual learning and more.



Diffusion defined as a process where innovation communicated through any channel in any duration for the members of the social system. Diffusion also known as a type of the communication where it’s brings the new idea. Besides that, diffusion also assume as a type of the social changing where it is the process of changes that happen in structure and function of social system. Actually, the phrase diffusion interconnected with the phrase innovation. Because, the main purpose innovation process is the members of social system adopted the innovation. The members of social system must be individual, informal cluster or organization.


The elements of diffusion and innovation

Everett Rogers (1983), was recognizing four elements that are present the diffusion and innovation process. The four elements are:


Communication Channels

Communication is the process where participant creates and disseminate the information each other to achieve understanding between them. As before, diffusion also known as a type of the communication where it’s brings the new idea (innovation). So, diffusion process is the changes information where someone communicates an idea to someone else. There are four elements in communication process. There is:

So, can be describe communication in diffusion process have the ability change the new idea (innovation) by someone or any unit that already have the knowledge and experience in using the innovation to someone or another unit that don’t have any knowledge and experience about the innovation through any communication channel.

Besides that, communication channel can be categorized into two types:



Time is the of the importance element in diffusion process. Time dimension in diffusion process influence in the decision process in innovation. That means, level of the process from the beginning the person receives the information until they accept or refuse the innovation. It also influence in relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group. Third, it influence in innovation rates of adoption. It is about how much the members in social system adopted the innovation in any duration period.


Social system

It is important to remember that the process of diffusion happen in social system. Social system is a set of unit which is interconnected that are combined together to reach the same purpose. The process of diffusion that is correlated to the social system is influence by the social structure, opinion leader, changes agent and others.


Diffusion and innovation in publishing technology

Innovation that happen in publishing technology is from Gutenberg era that created printed machine until this era that combined printed machine technology and electronic in digitally and automatically. Today, it is just not only about existing this kind of technology but also existing more advanced technology. E-publishing is the technology that expands the system of electronic publishing through online system until the publication of E-book. These expansions going very fast with existing of a lot of computer software. So, the entire electronic publishing no more depends on the paper but it is design in compact disc (CD) that can be owned easily and cheap.

Communication and publishing technology is just not only used in communication field but also in others fields. According to Hossein “stock broking firms have openly adopted information and communication technology to improve their competitiveness and responsiveness in market conditions”. So, expansions of business are happened when publishing and communication technology faced adoption and diffusion.

Printing and electronic media have been changed day by day. The innovation is going very fast and advance. From the beginning of the innovation, there are a lot of publishing trends. According to Carr (2007), “technological change and innovation proceeded at today's rate in fifteenth century Europe when printing technology was introduced, one can only speculate on the economic and political effects that its adoption and diffusion might have had on that era and subsequent history”.

These diffusion and innovation also help for education field. Carr (2007) says that adoptions of a new technology for education have signaled a confidence in its potential to alleviate a particular problem or to make a job easier or more efficient. While, Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) technology may provide of creating totally new learning environment. Everybody can search in the internet what they want and what they need. For instance, students used the WWW with maximum to settle their assignments.

Carr (2007) also says, “in addition to a strong stable advocacy needed to ensure the conditions necessary for technology adoption and diffusion, training in its technical aspects and application to real needs is crucial to its integration beyond the innovators and early adopters”.





Carr, V. H. Jr. (2007). Technology Adoption and Diffusion. Access on 10 September 2007 from;

Hosein, G., Peter, E.D., Eddie, W.L. (2004). Journal of Industrial Management & Data Systems: Information andCommunication Technology in the Stock broking Industry: An Evolutionary Approach to the Diffusion of Innovation. Vol. 104. N 9 pp. 756-765. Access on 12 September 2007 from;