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For the means of documentation in the electronic world, files created using Microsoft office can be uploaded onto the Internet. Files created in the words format can later be converted into PDF or html format as this are the most basic form of converting files to be kept and uploaded on the an internet website. Fro most electronic documents, this is an easy process by using a specialize software to do the converting of the document for Microsoft to an Adobe PDF format or to the html format.



PDF stand for “Portable Document Format”. A PDF file is able t be presented in an independent file of the original software, hardware and operating system used to create the document. Document in the form of a PDF file might be very simple in the content of texts, graphics and images.

The advantages of converting a word document to a PDF file is it serves as the best way of presenting a document that can be cleanly access in a web browser or to be downloaded from a website.

To make changes you have in the PDF file, it is much more advisable to do your editing in the form of your word document and later reconvert the file to be save in the PDF format. This choice of editing will be much easier compared to the doing the editing in the PDF format.

For Microsoft windows application, converting the documents are available by using the Adobe PDF converter application. While for Mac OS X users, there is not need for the use of the software as Macintosh already has the converter in the operation system.

Things to take note while converting the document:


Converting files from document to PDF format

From Windows computer: Converting a file to PDF format can be accomplished using the PDF Creator. This program is installed on computers. The steps to convert a file are as follow:


From a Macintosh computer: When converting a document, simply follow the steps below.


From Windows or Macintosh Computer: When converting the document to PDF format using Open Office Software:

Download Open Office

Open file that needs to be converted.

Click File and then Export as PDF in the drop-down box.

Specify the location of the file you want to PDF file to b exported.

For step-to-step instructions, please visit:

Picture can also be converted into the PDF format as this makes uploading the digital images a whole lot easier.

In the Internet and almost all electronic publishing website, JPEG is the most widely used format in converting an image file to be posted on the Internet. According to , “JPEG is one of the leading images formats out in the Internet today.”

JPEG is a term used to refer to a type of standard for compressing images. JPEG is developed by the Joint Photographic Expert Group. People usually refer to the JPEG format as a way to produce an appropriate file for computer storage and for the transmission using the JPEG stream. JPEG also refers to a format where the file images are used to save color, shades, and grayscale and monochrome images. It is also a form of lossy compression scheme.


Converting JPEG file to PDF format

Converting your files to be saved in the PDF format will prove to be at your best interest because the steps are easy as converting your document to a PDF format. Images saves n the form of a PDF format makes it a whole lot easier to get it uploaded when doing electronic publishing as it not only make the file size smaller, it also saves space on your hard drive.


How to convert a PowerPoint presentation in HTML

PowerPoint presentations are sometimes needed to be uploaded on the Internet to allow others to access the slides and also to gain notes for information. To upload the PowerPoint presentation slides, there are a few easy steps to follow:

Publishing the PowerPoint presentation slides:


Converting a document to HTML format 

Step 1: Select the file you wish to convert

Step 2: Use the buttons located in the toolbar menu to make any changes, such as increasing the font size or using italics. Format the document according to your likings before converting.

Step 3: Click on the Tool menu and select Spelling and Grammar check to correct your spelling before converting.

Step 4: Click the File menu and select SAVE AS HTML

Step 5: Click Yes in the following dialog box that appears.

Step 6: Open the Web Browser Menu and view the document you have just saved in html format.




Documentation is also a process whereby the document you used as reference or as a based to support research findings is clearly stated an accurately recorded style or in an appropriate manner according to the styles applied. Documentation can occur for any types of documents, be it a journal, a research reports, a magazine article or even from the newspaper. Documentation is carried out to give credits to the writer for their findings and research and also to their scholastic knowledge. Documentation can be divided into three (3) categories. The American Psychology Association, the Modern Language Association and the Chicago Manual Style of Writing. The former style of documentation will be elaborated in much depth while the latter will only be described briefly.


The American Psychological Association (APA)

The first category is the documentation according to APA style. APA stands for American Psychological Association. The type of documentation according to APA style is different from other kinds of documenting system. APA styles are applied by those who has an agreements based on the rules and forms of the usage of this particular type of style. Take note that APA documentation style can vary among the users. For instance, the application of APA documentation style in Western countries is by stating the family name of the writer first, followed by their first name. Such cases are not following when the APA documentation style is applied in the Eastern countries, where the family name of the writer will be stated by documenting the full name of the writer.

According to the format of APA documentation system, there are two different types of places where you have to do your documentation. The first place to document your findings is in the text itself. When you have referred to books and findings by scholars or researches, you have to state the name and the date of the writer by placing a bracket behind the statement you have taken from their book. By doing so you are given the writers credit for their work and their research done. Another place to document your findings is in the bibliography section. This section, you have to state the name and date of the writer and the book, the title of the book and also the name of the publisher to enable further findings of those who wish to read more about a certain info found in your writings. The other part of the reason to document your writings is to enable other parties reading your writings to have a valid source to refer to or to conduct more comprehensive research updates.

In the documentation style of APA there are a few different types of categories that once must learn to use. Those categories are as follow:


References is recorded when any information is taken from other external resources. References have to be record in the text written to avoid plagiarism.


Bibliography is a list of references listed down in accordance to alphabetical orders, starting by listing the name of the writer, the year of the book is published, the title of the book and the name and place of the publisher. This list of names of writers used as references in writing an article has to be attached together with the written article, placed at the end of the article wrote.

Reference Note:

Reference note refer to the kind of information taken from a document when it can’t be found so easily, for example, the information retrieved from the national library’s archive, the constitution of a country and religious bibles.

Reference Done Within the Text:

Reference within the text means taking the idea of another writer to be put into writing of your own article. This kind of reference is also applied to the restructuring of a sentence but still maintaining the same concept or ideas of the original writer.


Quoting from a writer or statement taken from a book needs to be recorded or documented. The reason quotation is taken is to strengthen the reasons and arguments of the writer or to support a point that has been written so that it is much more believable by the readers. Quoting is divided in to three groups in the APA documentation system. The first style is quoting directly from the referred text without changing anything words or adding sentences to it. The second type of quoting is by merging to different sentences but keeping the essence of the meaning you want to bring forth to the readers. The third type of quoting is by taking a large part from the text, for instance, to quote the statement given in a speech of a world renowned leader, so that it brings more depth into your point you want to portray.


Ellipsis is the use of the three (3) dots. Ellipsis is used the you want to combine two different sentences into one simple sentence but still being able to show the difference that it is made up of two individual sentences. Ellipsis allows the writer to merge two strong points he or she wishes to emphasize in one sentence.

Et al:

The phrase et al is used to substitute the names of the many writers of the same book used as reference by the writer. The names of the author of more than 6 can be substitute with the simple phrase of et al instead of repeating the documentation of all six names. The phrase et al can only be used the second time once all the six names of the author has been clearly documented for the first time in the article.


Modern Language Association (MLA)

Modern Language Association, also known as MLA is a style of documentation for student and writes alike to prepare their papers and articles according to the guidelines and rules stated by the association. MLA style of documenting is also widely accepted by students and researchers.

Mainly, the documentation style of MLA is used by those not only in the United Kingdom but also in Canada. This style of documentation is all about the mechanism of quotation, list of reference and the use of punctuation taken from other resources when writing a book.

The MLA style is also consider one of the top three styles of documentation beside the American Psychology Association and the Chicago Manual style of Writing.


Chicago Manual Style of Writing (CMS)

The Chicago Manual Style of Writing, also known as the CMS, originated from the format of documentation from the University of Chicago back in 1906. This form writing sets a standardize style for publication of books regarding research hand also academic articles. CMS pays more comprehensive attention to the style of citation in the form of written text. It is also a style widely used in the United States.

CMS allows two different types of documentation: the Author-Date system and Documentary-Note (Humanistic) style. For more information regarding those two different types of styles used in the CMS, please click in the following link:

More examples of CMS style of documentation, please refer to the following:

The usage of the CMS focuses more on the citation styles found in social science publication and historical journals. Examples of CMS are found the book of Organization of American History and American Anthropological Association. The Chicago Manual Style of Writing is widely used as listing reference in the publication industry.




The style of Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka is only used in the publication of local documents, books and articles. This form of documentation is different from the rest of the styles described above. This style emphasizes on the listing of the writer’s biography, the attachment in accordance with the writing, additional notes is available, a list of vocabulary, a list of glossary, bibliography, and an index list.

This style also encourages the listing of not more than five (5) sub-titles. There are rules applied to the listing of subtitles: for the 1 st subtitles, the wording have to be bold and made up of capital letters. The 2 nd and 3 rd subtitle has to consist both capital and small letters, either bolding it or use the italic form. The 4 th subtitle is made up of capital and small letters using medium size font. Last but not least, the 5 th subtitle consists of capital and small letters and using italic.




 Modern Language Association.