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Universiti Utara Malaysia

 

Faculty of communication and modern languages

Text Box:

1.      System of WEB Publishing.

-        Processing and receiving the data using the INTERNET.

-        WEB introduced by Tim Berners Lee (1989).

-        Having the feature of Browser and Search Engine.

-        Features of WEB:

1.      Web site- has link of information and hyperlink of homepage.

2.      Browsing- Searching site such as Explorer and Netscape.

3.      Server- Maxis, TmNet.

4.      Internet- Internet protocol (TCP/IP).

5.      Multimedia- elements of text, graphics, sounds, audio and video.

 

2.      Cable Television.

- Cable television is a system of providing television to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in traditional television broadcasting (via radio waves) in which a television antenna is required. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephony and similar non television services may also be provided. (www.wikipedia/cable.)

 

-Is a one of the communication services, in conjunction with Cox Communications of Santa Barbara, provides cable television to the UCSB campus.

 

      - Introduced in 1950 in Pensylvannia.

 

      - Increasing the quality of broadcast.

 

- Example in Malaysia Mega TV was launched in 1996 by TV3 as the only cable television service. However, it fail to expand its content, and so, it closed down in 2001, replaced by its competitor, the satellite television network Astro.

 

3.      Teletext.

- Start in England in 1970.

 

-Teletext (or "broadcast Teletext") is a television information retrieval service developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s. It offers a range of text-based information, typically including national, international and sporting news, weather and TV schedules. Subtitle (or closed caption) information is also transmitted in the teletext signal.

 

-Teletext information is broadcast in the vertical blanking interval between image frames in a broadcast television signal. It is closely linked to the PAL broadcast system, and most PAL televisions include teletext decoders. Other teletext systems have been developed to work with the SECAM and NTSC systems, but teletext failed to gain widespread acceptance in North America and other areas where NTSC is used. In contrast, teletext is nearly ubiquitous across Europe as well as some other regions, with most major broadcasters providing a teletext service. Common teletext services include TV schedules, regularly updated current affairs and sport news, simple games (such as quizzes) and subtitling for deaf people or in different languages.

 

-Teletext uses a numbered page metaphor to present its information, all of which is broadcast in sequence; when a viewer keys in a page number, the receiver waits until that information is broadcast again, typically within a few seconds, and retrieves it for display on-screen. More sophisticated systems use a buffer memory to store some or all of the teletext pages, for instantaneous display.

 

-Because of its presentation of user-requested graphic information, Teletext can be seen as a predecessor of the World Wide Web. Unlike the internet, teletext is broadcast, so it does not slow down further as the number of users increase. It has proved to be a reliable text news service during events such as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, during which the webpages of major news sites became inaccessible due to unexpected demand. Teletext is used for carrying special packets interpreted by TVs and video recorders, containing information about channels, programming.

 

-Although the term "teletext" tends to be used to refer to the PAL-based system, or variants, the recent availability of digital television has led to more advanced systems being provided that perform the same task, such as MHEG-5 in the UK, and Multimedia Home Platform. (www.wikipedia/teletext)

 

4.      Videotext.

- a communications service linked to an adapted television receiver or video display  terminal by telephone or cable television lines to allow access to pages of information. Systems can be one-way, allowing only for the display of selected information, or on-line or interactive, allowing for two-way communication. (www.msnencarta/dictionary)

 

- The term "videotext" refers to any interactive electronic system which allows users to send and receive data from either a personal computer or a dedicated terminal. The term "videotext" is often used interchangeably with appellations such as "online service" or "interactive network." Videotext systems deliver information and transactional services such as banking and shopping. These systems differ from broadcast media delivery systems due to the special qualities of interactivity engendered by the technology which allow the user to personalize his media use rather than act as a passive member of an aggregate audience.

 

- Traditionally, videotext systems displayed information only in text format, but as color monitors became more commonplace during the early 1990's, these services began to offer graphical user interfaces (GUIs) which incorporated sound and visually striking computer graphic displays. Although users connected to early videotext systems on dedicated terminals, most online services can now be accessed by the user via a phone line and a personal computer equipped with a modem or Ethernet connection. Videotext users may pay a per-use charge or a monthly subscription fee to access the service.

 

- The first videotext systems were developed in Europe in the 1970s by government-owned telephone companies. The world's largest videotext service is the French Teletel system, which boasts approximately eight million users. This system was launched in the early 1980s as part of an economic plan aimed at making France a leader in information technology. Free "Minitel" terminals were distributed by the French government (in lieu of paper versions of phone directories) and the service was promoted widely as a matter of public policy. Smaller videotext systems in Italy, Ireland, and other countries have made use of the French technology, whereas Germany, Japan, Korea, Britain and other nations have chose to develop their own videotext technologies.

 

- In the United States, videotext systems were initially launched by the newspaper publishers who made news and advertisements through special terminals hooked up to television monitors, but most of these services met with little commercial success. However, the increased diffusion of personal computers into the home eventually enabled consumer oriented videotext systems to succeed in the mass marketplace. By the mid-1990s, more than four million households had subscribed to one or more of the largest consumer-oriented U.S. videotext systems: America-Online, Prodigy, CompuServe, and Genie. Currently these providers are incorporating gateways to Internet applications within their services, including World Wide Web browsers, Usenet newsgroups and electronic mail.

 

- Television broadcasters are making increasing use of online information services to promote their programming; furthermore, several information services aimed at providing services related to the broadcasting industry have been sponsored by the major service providers mentioned above. On CompuServe, for example, users may access the Hollywood Hotline, which provides news and information about the entertainment industry, or they may obtain daily summaries of soap operas or printed transcripts of selected television shows. The CompuServe Broadcast Professionals Area contains information about publications and trade associations related to broadcast engineering, programming and television production. On America Online several networks and cable services have sponsored areas where fans can get information, register their opinions, or obtain sound samples or photos from their favorite programs.

 

- Services provided by videotext fall into one of three areas: information retrieval services such as obtaining stock prices or weather forecasts, transactional message services which enable the purchasing of merchandise over the network, and interpersonal message exchanges which may include conferencing, chat channels or electronic mail. This last application has been the most successful, indicating that consumers are more interested in using the services to talk to other people than to retrieve information.

 

- New developments in broadband television delivery, with its ability to display high-quality video and its incorporation of stereo sound, has encouraged some developers to experiment with providing videotext services over interactive TV systems. (www.museum/videotext.com)

                                                                                                                                      

5.      Electronic Mail.

 

        - Email systems are store-and-deliver software systems which transport messages from one computer user to another.  Email systems range in scope and size from a local area network email system which shuffles messages                 to users   within an agency or office; to a wide area network email system which carries messages to various users in various  physical locations; to Internet email which allows users with an Internet address to send and receive            messages from other Internet users around the world. (http://www.state.de.us)

 

         - Width, efficient, and low cost.

 

          - The deliver information system using the e-mail, memo and letter using the modem.                                                                                                           

 

Explanation About Types of Publishing